Repository: Freie Universität Berlin, Math Department

Alpha 1 Antitrypsin is an Inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2–Priming Protease TMPRSS2

Azouz, Nurit P. and Klingler, Andrea M. and Callahan, Victoria and Akhrymuk, Ivan V. and Elez, Katarina and Raich, Lluís and Henry, Brandon M. and Benoit, Justin L. and Benoit, Stefanie W. and Noé, Frank and Kehn-Hall, Kylene and Rothenberg, Marc E. (2021) Alpha 1 Antitrypsin is an Inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2–Priming Protease TMPRSS2. Pathogens and Immunity, 6 (1). pp. 55-74.

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Background: Host proteases have been suggested to be crucial for dissemination of MERS, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 coronaviruses, but the relative contribution of membrane versus intracellular proteases remains controversial. Transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) is regarded as one of the main proteases implicated in the coronavirus S protein priming, an important step for binding of the S protein to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor before cell entry. Methods: We developed a cell-based assay to identify TMPRSS2 inhibitors. Inhibitory activity was established in SARS-CoV-2 viral load systems. Results: We identified the human extracellular serine protease inhibitor (serpin) alpha 1 anti-trypsin (A1AT) as a novel TMPRSS2 inhibitor. Structural modeling revealed that A1AT docked to an extracellular domain of TMPRSS2 in a conformation that is suitable for catalysis, resembling similar serine protease inhibitor complexes. Inhibitory activity of A1AT was established in a SARS-CoV-2 viral load system. Notably, plasma A1AT levels were associated with COVID-19 disease severity. Conclusions: Our data support the key role of extracellular serine proteases in SARS CoV-2 infections and indicate that treatment with serpins, particularly the FDA-approved drug A1AT, may be effective in limiting SARS-CoV-2 dissemination by affecting the surface of the host cells. Keywords: COVID, coronavirus, TMPRSS2, protease, alpha 1 antitrypsin, camostat mesylate

Item Type:Article
Subjects:Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Mathematical and Computer Sciences > Mathematics
Mathematical and Computer Sciences > Mathematics > Applied Mathematics
Divisions:Department of Mathematics and Computer Science > Institute of Mathematics
ID Code:3052
Deposited By: Jana Jerosch
Deposited On:19 Jan 2024 09:30
Last Modified:19 Jan 2024 09:30

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