Netz, Roland R.
(2020)
*Approach to equilibrium and nonequilibrium stationary distributions of interacting many-particle systems that are coupled to different heat baths.*
Phys. Rev. E, 101
.
ISSN 022120

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.101.022120

## Abstract

A Hamiltonian-based model of many harmonically interacting massive particles that are subject to linear friction and coupled to heat baths at different temperatures is used to study the dynamic approach to equilibrium and nonequilibrium stationary states. An equilibrium system is here defined as a system whose stationary distribution equals the Boltzmann distribution, the relation of this definition to the conditions of detailed balance and vanishing probability current is discussed both for underdamped as well as for overdamped systems. Based on the exactly calculated dynamic approach to the stationary distribution, the functional that governs this approach, which is called the free entropy Sfree(t), is constructed. For the stationary distribution Sfree(t) becomes maximal and its time derivative, the free entropy production ˙Sfree(t), is minimal and vanishes. Thus, Sfree(t) characterizes equilibrium as well as nonequilibrium stationary distributions by their extremal and stability properties. For an equilibrium system, i.e., if all heat baths have the same temperature, the free entropy equals the negative free energy divided by temperature and thus corresponds to the Massieu function which was previously introduced in an alternative formulation of statistical mechanics. Using a systematic perturbative scheme for calculating velocity and position correlations in the overdamped massless limit, explicit results for few particles are presented: For two particles localization in position and momentum space is demonstrated in the nonequilibrium stationary state, indicative of a tendency to phase separate. For three elastically interacting particles heat flows from a particle coupled to a cold reservoir to a particle coupled to a warm reservoir if the third reservoir is sufficiently hot. This does not constitute a violation of the second law of thermodynamics, but rather demonstrates that a particle in such a nonequilibrium system is not characterized by an effective temperature which equals the temperature of the heat bath it is coupled to. Active particle models can be described in the same general framework, which thereby allows us to characterize their entropy production not only in the stationary state but also in the approach to the stationary nonequilibrium state. Finally, the connection to nonequilibrium thermodynamics formulations that include the reservoir entropy production is discussed.

Item Type: | Article |
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Subjects: | Mathematical and Computer Sciences > Mathematics > Applied Mathematics |

Divisions: | Department of Mathematics and Computer Science > Institute of Mathematics |

ID Code: | 2783 |

Deposited By: | Monika Drueck |

Deposited On: | 23 Feb 2022 14:59 |

Last Modified: | 23 Feb 2022 14:59 |

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